1. Grid- a network of vertical and horizontal lines that helps organize information.
2. Designers use a grid because it represents an inherent part of designing, and allows the designer to solve problems in a coherent way. Designers can lay out an enormous amount of information in less time because of the grid's structure. The benefits of working with a grid are simple: clarity, efficiency, economy, and continuity. "A well-planned grid creates endless opportunities for exploration, and a designer should not be afraid to test its limits."
3. Modular Grid- grid that subdivides each section into an individual unit, or module. When repeated, these units create units and rows.
4. Margins- negative spaces between the format edge and the content, which surround and define the live area where type and images will be arranged. The proportions of the margins bear some consideration, as they help establish the overall tension within the composition. Margins can be used to focus attention serve as a resting place for the eye, or act as an area for subordinate information.
5. Columns- are vertical alignments of type that create horizontal divisions between the margins. There can be any number of columns; sometimes they are all the same width, and sometimes they are different widths, corresponding to specific kinds of information.
6. Grid Modules- modules are individual units of space separated by regular intervals that, when repeated across the page format, create columns and rows to form the grid structure.
7. Flow lines- are alignments that break the space into horizontal bands. Flowlines help guide the eye across the format and can be used to impose additional stopping and starting points for text or images.
8. Gutter- are the white spaces between two pages of a book, or more generally, between columns of text.
9. Hierarchy- An order that is based on the level of importance the designer assigns to each part of the text.
10. Typographic color- changing the scale relationships or their visual darkness or weight of certain elements. Deals with changes of lightness, darkness or value.
11. Ways to determine a clear hierarchy include using typographic color. The designer must determine what elements are advancing visually, and which elements are receding. There must be a clear contrast between what is important, and what information is subordinate.